When the dog days of summer deliver hot temperatures and high humidity, the American Red Cross Rhode Island Chapter
urges residents to take precautions against the heat.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 400 Americans die each year due to summer's
sweltering heat. Furthermore, the National Weather Service asserts that excessive heat was the number one weather-related killer, causing more fatalities per year than
floods, lightning, tornadoes, hurricanes, winter storms and extreme cold from 1994 to 2003.
Everyone is at risk when temperatures rise above 90 degrees but the elderly and the very young are most susceptible to
heat and heat-related illnesses. Heat-related illnesses can cause serious injury and even death if unattended. Signs of heat-related illnesses include nausea, dizziness, flushed or
pale skin, heavy sweating and headaches. Victims of heat-related illness should be moved to a cool place, given cool water to drink and ice packs or cool wet cloths should
be applied to the skin. If a victim refuses water, vomits or loses consciousness, call 9-1-1 or your local emergency number immediately.
Red Cross Heat Safety Tips:
- Dress for the heat. Wear lightweight, light-colored clothing. Light colors will reflect away some of the sun's
energy. It is also a good idea to wear hats or to use an umbrella.
- Drink water. Carry water or juice with you and drink continuously even if you do not feel thirsty. Avoid
alcohol and caffeine, which dehydrate the body. Avoid using salt tablets unless directed to do so by a physician.
- Eat small meals and eat more often. Avoid high-protein foods, which increase metabolic heat.
- Slow down. Avoid strenuous activity. If you must do strenuous activity, do it during the coolest part of the
day, which is usually in the morning between 4 and 7 a.m.
- Stay indoors when possible. If air-conditioning is not available, stay on the lowest floor out of the sunshine.
Remember that electric fans do not cool, they simply circulate the air.
- Be a good neighbor. During heat waves, check in on elderly residents in your neighborhood and those who do not have air conditioning.
- Learn Red Cross first aid and CPR. "While the above tips can help prevent emergencies, it is crucial to know
what to do if an emergency situation arises," says Moncada.
Know What These Heat-Related Terms Mean:
- Heat cramps: Heat cramps are muscular pains and spasms due to heavy exertion. Although heat cramps
are the least severe, they are an early signal that the body is having trouble with the heat.
- Heat exhaustion: Heat exhaustion typically occurs when people exercise heavily or work in a hot, humid
place where body fluids are lost through heavy sweating. Blood flow to the skin increases, causing blood flow to decrease to the vital organs. This results
in a form of mild shock. If not treated, the victim may suffer heat stroke. Signals of heat exhaustion include cool, moist, pale flushed or red skin; heavy
sweating; headache; nausea or vomiting; dizziness; and exhaustion. Body temperature will be near normal.
- Heat stroke: Also known as sunstroke, heat stroke is life-threatening. The
victim's temperature control system, which produces sweating to cool the body, stops working. The body temperature can rise so high that brain
damage and death may result if the body is not cooled quickly. Signals include hot, red and dry skin; changes in consciousness; rapid, weak pulse;
and rapid, shallow breathing. Body temperature can be very high—sometimes as high as 1050 F.
General Care for Heat Emergencies:
- Heat cramps or heat exhaustion: Get the person to a cooler place and have
him or her rest in a comfortable position. If the person is fully awake and alert, give half a glass of cool water every 15 minutes. Do not let him or her
drink too quickly. Do not give liquids that contain alcohol or caffeine. Remove or loosen tight clothing and apply cool, wet cloths, such as towels or sheets.
Call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number if the person refuses water, vomits or loses consciousness.
- Heat stroke: Heat stroke is a life-threatening situation! Help is needed fast.
Call 9-1-1 or your local emergency number. Move the person to a cooler place. Quickly cool the body. Immerse victim in a cool bath, or wrap wet
sheets around the body and fan it. Watch for signals of breathing problems. Keep the person lying down and continue to cool the body any way you can.
If the victim refuses water or is vomiting or there are changes in the level of consciousness, do not give anything to eat or drink.
For more information on heat safety, contact the Rhode Island Chapter at 401-831-7700 or visit www.riredcross.org.